Addressing Behavioural Technologies Through the Human Factor: A Review


Energy-efficiency related research has reached a growing interest in recent years due to the imminent scarcity of non-renewable resources in our environment and the impending impacts their usage have on our environment. Thus, facing the reduction of energy waste and management has become a pivotal issue in our society. To cope with energy inefficiency, the scientific research community has identified the promotion of people’s behaviour change as a critical field to foster environmental sustainability. However, the body of literature shows a lack of systematic methods and processes to reach a common ground when designing technology for promoting sustainable behaviour change. Therefore, this paper contributes with a thorough review and analysis of state of the art. Firstly, theoretical works related to behaviour change are collected and studied to clarify their main concepts and theories. Secondly, the different technologies, processes, methods and techniques applied in the field are reviewed to find diverse strategies in the application of the previously explained theoretical domains. Moreover, a wide range of systems developed to improve energy efficiency through human behaviour change is analysed (from augmented objects to the Internet of Things, digital applications or websites). Finally, the detected research gaps are listed to guide future research when aiming to raise the awareness of individuals through Information and Communication Technologies.